Sunday, April 21, 2019

The Oldest Order (an exegetical poem)

"The Oldest Order"
By Brendan Bombaci
“I am the root and heir of David – the bright morning star,”
an utterance too erudite for a faithful just too far
from the source of their belief and the wisdom of the chiefs –
it’s not really a wonder how they’ve been so fully fleeced.

Descendents of Zadok, High Priests of David’s line,
Owed their clout not to David but another man, sublime
in his power, much beseeched, in his title old as time –
it was he, Melchizedek, bestowed them power so divine.

Not royal until tithing him - just military in might –
Abraham had sought his day, which then came though in spite
Of the fact that he would owe his gains and pride to the Order;
He cared not, as his House would get credit in all forms

from the messianic masses stemming from occulted union –
A daughter, house of Zadok, and 7th son of David’s ruling.
From there it did not matter who Mary, line of Aaron,
Conceived a child with – her lineage now shared

the power of the kings and holiness of the Order:
both anointer and anointed would be her son or daughter.
In this we see the way for Christ to claim a tie to David,
And how he is the “root” of his house – a priest ordained became him.

The Order of Melchizedek, a secret in itself,
Is revealed in full regalia by looking to the shelf:
In the Dead Sea Scrolls, when seeking frame by frame,
It is discovered that these men were donning God’s own name.

Peter and Paul’s proclamation, “Melchizedek, immortal,”
is information lacking basis – if a lie, deplorable.
The truth, removed by Rome, is that the name is just a title –
A moniker, in fact, for a famed ethereal fighter:

Michael is the name – the highest of God’s princes,
And he reigns over their Order, the Elohim, evinced.
So it is no mystery that his name has no known lineage,
Since just addressed by honorific, his identity was privilege.

David, Psalm 110, clued his allegiance to the Order;
His ‘lord’ so described: his high priest Zadok, enforced.
So apostolic proclamation from this verse alone is biased,
of Jesus’ immortality – it is a message hardly pious.

So suspicious a thing that these details, so key
Have been locked away so thoroughly by deletion or decree;
The truth overall we come to know through perusal –
Something that cannot be ignored upon refusal –

Is this, in gist: the power of the messiah
Was not supernatural but in fact bloodline tie
Between a networked cult and a strong warring people,
The marriage – church and crown – a dominance complete.

When it was time for uprising, the prophesy was engaged –
So the elohim Gabriel, of the Order, was the sage
Who was called on to give Mary the “message” of her miracle…
It appears the Order’s priests yet used monikers for their will…

In “The Rule of Congregation” it is ‘the messiah of Aaron and David’
Who was written as the one who would bring them to endgame.
But alas, in prophesy, he was a militant Jewish leader,
Who would bring them regional rule and convert all non-believers;

And after all, his pacifism lent more power to the Empire,
So Gabriel, it would seem, was either wrong or a liar.
That is, unless of course, the Order was in collusion
With the Romans who, in force, had more power, no illusion.

To hand off cult authority from the Jews to their ilk
Would be no act of treason – the cult was David’s milk;
It gave his line credentials to rule on a holy path,
And it could take them right away to influence statecraft.

So it may be that, behind the scenes, it was not sympathy
For Jesus and his followers that “made the Romans plea
For his freedom,” since there was no crime except for ethnic wake –
It may be that they wrote this in as a subversive power take.

Since it is that the Caesars in time became the Popes,
The “Vicars,” or ‘replacements for’ the Christ, there was no hope
For the Sicarii to win the war, despite some minor battles,
Or for pagan faiths under Roman scores who left only death rattles.

Furthermore, the militant Christ did not disappear –
He was written into Revelations to instill a shocking fear
Into those who would question the new and “Christian” doctrine,
And so the Legion made a promise to the world, that is locked into

The minds of many billions who promulgate their culture –
make no mistake, that’s what it is: a mind-moulding subterfuge
against other ways of knowing, of living, and of growing,
liberal progression and egality, once flowing

like a river through the people of societies paganistic,
the Abrahamic faiths are crowd control, to be specific.
To see where it’s all headed, one must look to the U.N. –
the Holy See is an ‘observer’ to all goings-on within…

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Empathy as the Basic for Delusion, and Yage as a Potential Treatment



Empathy as the Basis of Delusion, and Yagé as a Potential Treatment

By Brendan Bombaci

Copyright Brendan Bombaci 2016
Lulu Press

ISBN: 978-1-365-08866-7

Revised in March 2019 and posted on ResearchGate @



As indicated by the behaviors of mammals in contrast to non-mammalian animals, neocortex size evidently relates to capacities of empathy and organization.  Dunbar’s Social Brain Hypothesis notes that, in primates, bigger neocortices are correlated to humanlike friendship relations rather than solely mating or hierarchy relations seen in other animals; and, Dunbar's Number rationally relates sizes of neocortices to those of social networks (Dunbar 2009, Dunbar 1992).  This may be due to the fact that more memories can be stored about individuals, allowing for more individuals to be well known.  For humans, the theory holds that we can each relate well to nearly 150 other humans (Gonçalves, Perra, and Vespigniani 2011; Hernando et al. 2010; MacCarron, Kaski, and Dunbar 2016).  Such “others” do not have to be known to be considered: to know 150 other individuals fairly well is to be able to predictively assess or even imaginatively synthesize unknown people – by calculating potential personality trait permutations of known individuals who share certain recognizable traits with them – hence, “social intuition.” 

It may be that quantity increases and/or amplified transmission efficiency of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters, caused by monoamine oxidase inhibitor chemicals (MAOIs), mostly known for their use as antidepressant drugs in the West, promotes broadened and intensified access to and mentation upon interpersonal memories.  Hyperactivation of such neurotransmitters seems to lead to an uncontrollable, unhampered, and sometimes delusional consideration (or auditory hallucination) of others, as seen in bipolar and schizophrenic psychoses.  Underactivation seems to lead to social withdrawal.  The unique activities of antipsychotic drugs and antidepressant MAOIs, respectively, corroborate this psychiatric polarity.  In as much, empathy appears on the same spectrum as delusion, but is simply lower in intensity, incidentally controllable, and, in effect, more accurate.

Differences in culture appear to be the foundational factors behind whether delusions are detrimental, and this is partly due to the contrasting effects of prohibition of experience, and venerance of experience, with certain plant chemicals that alter consciousness in various ways.  These are MAOIs, and also various “psychedelic” or “entheogenic” serotonin agonists – for scientific communication, I will use Winkelman’s (1996) term psychointegrator for this latter chemical class because of the way that such substances unify and awaken brain areas for heightened learning and performance (Carhart-Harris et al. 2016), nonlinear thought processes (Petri et al. 2014), and the promotion of neurogenesis as well as resolution of fear conditioning (Catlow et al. 2013).  The two-fold combination of these chemical classes (MAOI + psychointegrator), such as found in the sacred medicinal Amazonian tea Yagé (also and most popularly called Ayahuasca, though that is actually just the name of the MAOI-bearing liana ingredient alone) can make visually tangible the afflictions that are otherwise internalized or invisible yet auditory in psychotic episodes.  Given the profound worldview modifications that can be made with the utilization of such substances (Bombaci 2012), it may be that the generally implicit or subconscious neurological mechanism by which the human brain learns and enacts social intuition (Lieberman 2000) shares an equal impact with the typically less effective explicit or intentional mode as well, during such ASC.  In a scientific clinical set and setting, this can be leveraged to potentially ameliorate feelings of guilt, self-loathing, and paranoia in such sufferers, by way of persuading patients via logic and manipulation of hallucinations, to recognize the actually subconscious and transmutable rather than typically static and spuriously perceived supernatural or extraterrestrial origins (APA 1994:273-317) of such delusions.  Such a Westernized form of Yagé therapy (with either organic or pharmaceutical compounds) would be a major step forward for the field of psychiatry, with the caveat that some sort of antipsychotic compound, without contraindication, be simultaneously consumed in order to relieve fear and self-doubt and help the healing process (CBD being perhaps the best natural option).


Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) have been linked to decreased capacities for comprehension, and even negative perceptions, of emotional tone in others (Emerson et al. 1999, Kan et al. 2004, Murphy and Cutting 1990, Perón et al. 2011, Uekermann et al. 2008, Quadflieg et al. 2008, Quadflieg et al. 2007) – an ability that is normally acculturated by a young age, and key to empathetic socialization (Kirmayer 2008:459).  In that social engagement declines with increases in symptom severity in these disorders, which can create recursive attentional, emotional, and attributional symptom amplification or looping (Kirmayer and Sartorius 2007:836), such a connection highlights the fact that humans are still socially dependent primates and tend to pine for recognition of worth when under duress.  MAOI-A chemicals (different from MAOI-Bs), whose effective pharmaceutical effects are classified as “antidepressant,” boost levels of endogenous and dietarily active serotonin, dopamine, and epinephrine.  It can be inferred that depression is the chemical and social-engagement opposite of an MAOI-altered state when experienced by a psychiatrically normal personbeing that for them it is a literally sensational, socially sensitizing experience, made apparent by the original name for the plant-sourced MAOI harmine alone, that is, “telepathine."  Hence, MAOIs can facilitate approximations of psychiatric baseline for depressed people.  However, it can precipitate or exacerbate mania and delusions, as well as auditory hallucinations, in sufferers of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia both, because these people already have either an active overabundance of those neurotransmitters and/or malfunctioning receptor sites (Howes and Kapur 2009, López-Figueroa et al. 2004, Mueller 2007, Preisig 2000).  This is suggestive that those detrimental mental states are merely amplified versions of what stable people experience with MAOIs.  In as much, there would appear to be a sort of threshold where MAOI-enhanced empathy, energy levels, euphoria, and saturated imagination become delusions, mania, and auditory hallucinations.  

In some cultures, these extremes, seeming on first objective glance to arrest or overtake a person’s self-control, are not frightful conditions for the experiencer or those around them, but are rather accepted because they occur at a frequency of and to a degree of social manageability, and are even informative for the collective.  This cultural difference likely has to do with a variety of factors including societal power hierarchies and acceptable levels of individualism in contrast to collectivism (Johnson and Johnson 2014:1114-5), less dramatizing family relations (Watters 2010:152-153), and an absence of iatrogenic “looping” (amplifying) effects caused by both societal stigmas and the limitations of caregiving service and political-economic treatment options (Kirmayer and Sartorius 2007:836).  Complex shamanic practices - the origins of ethnopsychiatry and religions worldwide - stem from such extreme altered states of consciousness or ASC (Polimeni and Reiss 2002:246), or from the reverent mimicry thereof via (1) the carefully measured consumption of psychoactive substances (Dobkin de Rios et al. 1974:152, Rätsch 2005), or (2) the ritual act of performing tasks under such influences by a sane person in an unaltered state (Lewis 2003:161-172, Noll 1983, Vitebsky 2001:52-92).  Cultures that appreciate and explore the deep relationship between both the ASC below and above the control threshold may be those best able to handle them.  For them, externalized voices, which are to Westerners attributed to “angels and demons” or “agents” within, may instead be perceived as benevolent environmental spirits, ancestors, or deity avatars who comment on or guide us through activities and decisions, which altogether implies a sort of social kindling of these states (Luhrmann et al. 2015).  To see those entities as “beyond the veil,” potentially being in control of our interpersonal charisma, care, and scrutinizations, is fundamental to both animism and concepts of the soul, which led many societies to ancestor worship and/or theistic religion (Peoples, Duda, and Marlowe 2016; Winkelman and Baker 2010:135-148), and then, for some, to the scientific method.  The degree to which such entities are either supportive and inspiring, or scrutinizing and vindictive, depends upon the scope of the civilization that one lives in (Atran and Henrich 2010) and whether the dominant religion therein is based on moralizing high gods who are ever-watchful of and punitive towards behavior and thoughts that reduce sociality (Purzycki et al. 2017).  Furthermore, the severity of punishment from such gods is key: belief in eternal damnation, e.g., is a far cry from belief in karma.

The MAOI-bearing plants known as Ayahuasca (“vine of souls”), caltrops (“goatheads”), mimosa hostilis, malabarica (found in the Tibetan and Nepalese incense Nag Champa), and Syrian Rue (a royal red fabric dye and medicine), are all originally sourced from disparate locations in the world and have historical and modern use.  It is not a leap between associating such potently psychoactive plants with spirits, and, in consistency, associating all natural beings and objects with spirits as well.  Importantly, the difference between MAOI and psychointegrator experiences may be the difference between speaking with angels and demons and actually bringing their realms visually to our own.  This resonates with the proclamation by many Amazonian Yagé shamans (ayahuasqueros) that, in the psychoactive beverage Yagé (actually containing an admixture of various plant extracts), the MAOI-bearing liana ingredient Ayahuasca, Banisteriopsis caapi, is “the power” (providing access to the spirit realm), while one of the DMT-bearing leaf ingredients Chacruna, or Psychotria viridis, is “the light” (providing the ability to see said realm).  As noted already, the fact that ayahuasqueros are animistic rather than theistic may explain why instead of envisioning angels, demons, aliens, and multidimensional (rather than solely entoptic) geometric forms – all so ubiquitous in Western ideological, artistic, and technological undercurrents – they envision self-aware jaguars, serpents, birds, butterflies, people, plants, and elements.  The miraculous Yagé plant substance combination may have been analagously recognized in Mesopotamia during Biblical times as existing between Syrian Rue and Acacia (Shanon 2008) – the latter being a common architectural and craft wood, but incidentally the “burning bush” that spoke on behalf of Jehovah to Moses.  This is quite possible, given strong arguments for an as-yet unadmitted but evidenced use of other psychointegrators in the spatiotemporality of Biblical accounts (Irvin and Herer 2009; Irvin, Rutajit, and Zervos 2009; Moleiro 2005).  Again, CBD may have helped facilitate positive and constructive insight in the latter case, as knei-bosem or “fragrant reed” (hypothesized to be cannabis – whose original strains had very low pro-psychotic THC oil content in comparison to anti-psychotic CBD oil), was the original Chrism or anointing oil, which would guide one to being holy and good through their experience with the holy sacrament, Amanita muscaria (Bombaci 2017).

          So it would appear that the current-day Yagé users of the Amazon, and perhaps officially undisclosed users of Yagé analogues elsewhere, are in a unique position to differentiate between (1) the visual and euphoric effects of serotonin analogues such as DMT (aforementioned), psilocybin (found in certain mushrooms of Europe and the Americas), and lysergic acid (found in plants of Mexico and South America as well as in the chemically transformed beverage made from ergot used by the ancient Greek hierophants [Webster, Perrine, and Ruck 2000]); and (2) the reward-sensation increasing, empathy amplifying, and potential auditory hallucination inducing effects of dopamine and epinephrine flooding that occurs with consumption of plant-sourced (or synthetic antidepressant) MAOIs.  They are also in a unique position to understand and navigate their combined effects.  For them, projected mental entities do not automatically impose pressure or moral judgment upon them, which allows their experiences to guide them towards constructive recognition of faults and transgressions, how to achieve virtue and success, and how to foster rather than fear.  For them, auditory hallucinations from heroic MAOI doses are learned to be associated with visual hallucinations as well.  So, even when just using the MAOI-containing Yagé ingredient Ayahuasca, they are comfortable with and experientially analytical towards disembodied voices even without their associated visual representations, at times attributing said voices to the minds of those in their communities (Rodd 2008).  They are still recognized as tangible – people have a sense of knowing where they come from and are therefore on equal ground with them.  If someone in a village experiences unwarranted and therefore confusing psychoses, ayahuasqueros are therefore in a great position to counsel them.  However, their popularly acclaimed ability to successfully counsel those from other cultures (rather than administer a purely exotic catharsis or psychological placebo) is questionable, in that (1) tribal Amazonian culture is immensely distant from the West in norms, philosophies, linguistic devices, and archetypes, and (2) there doesn’t appear to be any literature on research that has controlled for psychiatrically normal versus delusion-prone people that have sought Yagé therapy and benefitted from it.


          The everyday framework of culture is integral to both individual and group perceptions, feelings, and beliefs.  Yagé could be powerfully therapeutic for mentally unstable Westerners prone to delusion and psychoses, in the right set and setting, and with culture-appropriate cosmological and spiritual counseling that decimates their negativity by way of helping them see their vices and virtues and how to reduce the former and enhance the latter.  Such suggestion should be familiar to them, because it has been promoted by many academic philosophers, lay skeptics, and now scientists, ever since The Enlightenment.  DMT is a serotonin (5HT) analogue but is not serotonin itself, and there are very particular 5HT molecules that cause mania in some people but not in others (hence why one serotonin antagonist antipsychotic will work for one sufferer but not for another).  As such, it is possible that many sufferers of psychosis can safely use DMT in a supervised and medical intervention-ready setting along with, e.g., CBD oil for emergency anti-psychotic measures (and Xanax, benzodiazapenes, and/or atypical antipsychotic drugs for extreme situations).  This would have to be clinically confirmed, of course, with safety protocols such as dose-stepping experimentation for each potential Yagé therapy subject to ascertain the risk of and be aptly prepared for psychological crisis.  The Ayahuasca vine or other MAOI source will likely cause delusion and/or auditory hallucinations, but the DMT, causal of general visual hallucinations, would potentially offer visual form to these as well, lending leverage to the counselor over both the subconscious and objectively conscious processes of the patient.

Acculturation mechanisms, and therefore the weavings of the subconscious – the schema with which we make associations between people, places, things – are a human universal even if particular symbolism, ideas, and knowledge classification systems are not (Bombaci 2012:3-8).  Through suggestion and environmental alteration, that is, manipulation of the short term “set and setting” for familiar comfort, safety, and learning – known in the literature as integral to the quality of the psychointegrator experience (Bombaci 2012:19-22) – a psychointegrator therapist could intentionally transform Yagé-induced visual hallucinations; and, due to schematic relationships, there is great potential for such transformations to alter concomitant delusions and auditory hallucinations into visually tangible and familiar representations, and thereby into less mysterious and omnipotent or “stealthy” entities (traits that may be the root cause of their seeming malevolence).  If the transformations are at least preferable to what the patient has experienced prior to psychointegrator therapy, rhetorical counseling would likely help them understand that such hallucinations are of subconscious and benevolent nature, originating from a hyperactivation of empathy processes that under normal circumstances are meant to provide the predictable and useful mechanism of social intuition.  They may thereby gain power over their fear and self-doubt, and therefore over delusional thoughts generally, increasingly softening their symptoms and leading to real healing.  Proven that such sessions are safe and effective, there is hope that they can affect remission, or at least self-control to the degree of functional self-sufficiency.  In the process, the patient would necessarily gain a heightened capacity for empathy and become better equipped to assess others’ mental schema, capable of living a good social life, as well, and, in potential, as counselors or mediators, professional innovators, or community leaders.



1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Psychiatric Disorders IV. American Psychiatric Association.
Atran, Scott, and Joseph Henrich
2010.  The Evolution of Religion: How Cognitive By-Products, Adaptive Learning Heuristics, Ritual Displays, and Group Competition Generate Deep Commitments to Prosocial Religions. Biological Theory 5(1): 18-30.
Bombaci, Brendan
2012. Defending Perceptual Diversity in America: Entheogens as Legitimate Contributors to Learning, Health, and Empathy.  Multidisciplinary Association of Psychedelic Studies, Free Books and Essays Section.  Accessed 4 May 2016.  Lulu Press: USA. 
2017. Amanita muscaria: The Holy Sacrament of the Order of Melchizedek, Symbol of the Resurrection, and Cause for Christian Redemption.  Lulu Press.
Carhart-Harris et al.
2016. Neural Correlates of the LSD Experience Revealed by Multimodal Imaging. PNAS 113(17):4853-4858.
Catlow, BJ, S. Song, DA Paredes, CL Kirstein, J. Sanchez-Ramos
2013. Effects of Psilocybin on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Extinction of Trace Fear Conditioning. Experimental Brain Research 228(4):481-491.
Dobkin de Rios, et al.
1974. The Influence of Psychotropic Flora and Fauna on Maya Religion [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology, 15(2):147-164.
Dunbar, R.I.M.
2009. The Social Brain Hypothesis and its Implications for Social Evolution. Annals of Human Biology 36(5):562-572.
1992. Neocortex Size as a Constraint on Group Size in Primates. Journal of Human Evolution 22(6):469-493.
Emerson C.S., D.W. Harrison, and D.E. Everhart
1999. Investigation of Receptive Affective Prosodic Ability in School-Aged Boys With and Without Depression. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology 12:102–9.
Gonçalves, Bruno, Nicola Perra, and Allessandro Vespigniani
2011. Modeling Users’ Activity on Twitter Networks: Validation of Dunbar’s Number. PLoS One, 6(8):e22656.
Hernando, A., D. Villuendas, C. Vesperinas, M. Abad, and A. Plastino
2010. Unravelling the Size Distribution of Social Groups with Information Theory in Complex Networks. The European Physical Journal B, 76:87-97.
Howes, Oliver D., and Shitij Kapur
2009. The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: Version III – The Final Common Pathway. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35(3):549-562.
Irvin, Jan, Andrew Rutajit, and Nicholas Zervos
2009. Astrotheology & Shamanism: Christianity’s Pagan Roots (A Revolutionary Interpretation of the Evidence). Booksurge Publishing: North Charleston.
Irvin, Jan, and Jack Herer
2009. The Holy Mushroom: Evidence of Mushrooms in Judeo-Christianity. Gnostic Media Research & Publishing: Crestline.
Johnson, Kaja R., Sheri L. Johnson
2014. Cross-National Prevalence and Cultural Correlates of Bipolar I Disorder. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49:1111-1117.
Kan Y., M. Mimura, K. Kamijima, and M. Kawamura
2004. Recognition of Emotion from Moving Facial and Prosodic Stimuli in Depressed Patients. Journal of Neurological and Neurosurgical Psychiatry 75:1667-71.
Kirmayer, Laurence J.
2008. Empathy and Alterity in Cultural Psychiatry. Ethos 36(4):457-474.
Kirmayer, Laurence J., MD, and Norman Sartorius, MD, PhD
2007. Cultural Models and Somatic Syndromes. Psychosomatic Medicine 69:832-840.
Lewis, I.M.
2003. Ecstatic Religion: A Study of Shamanism and Spirit Posession. Routledge: New York.
Lieberman, Matthew D.
2000. Intuition: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Approach. Psychological Bulletin 126(1):109-137.
López-Figueroa, Antonio L., Camille S. Norton, Manuel O. López-Figueroa, Denise Armellini-Dodel, Sharon Burke, Huda Akil, Juan F. López, Stanley J. Watson
2004. Serotonin 5HT1A, 5HT1B, and 5HT2A Receptor mRNA Expression in Subjects with Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia.  Biological Psychiatry 55(3):225-233.
Luhrmann, Tanya M., R. Padmavati, Hema Tharoor, Akwasi Osei
2015. Hearing Voices in Different Cultures: A Social Kindling Hypothesis.
MacCarron, Pádraig, Kimmo Kaski, and Robin Dunbar
2016. Calling Dunbar’s Numbers. arXiv: 1604.02400, Submitted 8 April. Cornell University Library: Ithaca.
2005. The Great Canterbury Psalter (Anglo-Catalan Psalter). Barcelona. Restored, copied, and archived by Moleiro Biblical Books.  Accessed 2 May 2016.
Mueller, D.J.
2007. Further Evidence of MAO-A Gene Variants Associated With Bipolar Disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics 144b(1):37-40.
Murphy D., and J. Cutting
1990. Prosodic Comprehension and Expression in Schizophrenia. Journal of Neurological and Neurosurgical Psychiatry 53:727-730.
Noll, Richard
1983. Shamanism and Schizophrenia: A State-Specific Approach to the “Schizophrenia Metaphor” of Shamanic States. American Ethnologist 10(3): 443-459.
Perón, Julie, Sarah El Tamer, Didier Grandjean, Emmanuelle Leray, David Travers, Dominique Drapier, Marc Vérin, and Bruno Millet
2011. Major Depressive Disorder Skews the Recognition of Emotional Prosody. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 35: 987-996
Peoples, Hervey C., Pavel Duda, Frank W. Marlowe
2016. Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion. Human Nature 27(3): 261-282.
Petri, G., P. Expert, F. Turkheimer, R. Carhart-Harris, D. Nutt, P.J. Hellyer, F. Vaccarino
2014. Homological Scaffolds of Brain Functional Networks. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:20140873.
Preisig, et al.
2000. Association Between Bipolar Disorder and Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Polymorphisms: Results of a Multicenter Study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 157(6):948-955.
Polimeni, J., and J.P. Reiss
2002. How Shamanism and Group Selection May Reveal the Origins of Schizophrenia. Medical Hypotheses 58(3):244-248.
Purzycki, Benjamin Grant, Joseph Henrich, Coren Apicella, Quentin D. Atkinson, Adam Baimel, Emma Cohen, Rita Anne McNamara, Aiyana K. Willard, Dimitris Xygalatas, and Ara Norenzayan
2017.  The Evolution of Religion and Morality: A Synthesis of Ethnographic and Experimental Evidence from Eight Societies. Religion, Brain, and Behavior 8:2, 101-132.
Quadflieg, Susanne, Alexander Mohr, Hans-Joachim Mentzel, Wolfgang H.R. Miltner, and Thomas Straube
2008. Modulation of the Neural Network Involved in the Processing of Anger Prosody: The Role of Task-Relevance and Social Phobia. Biological Psychology 78(2): 129–137.
Quadflieg, Susanne, Beate Wendt, Alexander Mohr, Wolfgang H.R. Miltner, and Thomas Straube
2007. Recognition and Evaluation of Emotional Prosody in Individuals with Generalized Social Phobia: A Pilot Study. Behaviour Research and Therapy 45(12): 3096–3103.
Rätsch, Christian
2005. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and its Applications. John R. Baker, translator. Inner Traditions International.
Rodd, Robin, PhD
2008. Reassessing the Cultural and Psychopharmacological Significance of Banisteriopsis Caapi: Preparation, Classification and Use Among the Piaroa of Southern Venezuela. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 40(3): 301-307.
Webster, Peter, Daniel M. Perrine, PhD, and Carl A. P. Ruck.
2000. Mixing the Kykeon. Eleusis: Journal of Psychoactive Plants and Compounds, New Series 4:1-25.
Shanon, Benny.
2008. Biblical Entheogens: a Speculative Hypothesis. Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology Consciousness and Culture 1(1):51-74.
Uekermann, Jennifer, Mona Abdel-Hamid, Caroline Lehmkämper, Wolfgang Vollmoeller, and Irene Daum
2008. Perception of Affective Prosody in Major Depression: A Link to Executive Functions? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 14: 552-561.
Vitebsky, Piers
2001. Shamanism. University of Oklahoma Press: OK.
Watters, Ethan
2010. Crazy Like Us: The Globalization of the American Psyche. Free Press: New York.
Winkelman, Michael, and John. R. Baker
2010. Supernatural as Natural: A Biocultural Approach to Religion. Pearson Education  Incorporated: New Jersey.
Winkelman, Michael
1996. Psychointegrator Plants: Their Roles in Human Culture, Consciousness, and Health. Yearbook of Cross-Cultural Medicine and Psychotherapy (1995): 9-53.